Compare any two graphics cards:
GeForce 8400 GS 512MB vs GeForce GTX 1060 3GB
IntroThe GeForce 8400 GS 512MB uses a 80 nm design. nVidia has set the core speed at 650 MHz. The DDR2 memory runs at a speed of 400 MHz on this model. It features 16 SPUs along with 8 TAUs and 4 Rasterization Operator Units.
Compare those specs to the GeForce GTX 1060 3GB, which makes use of a 16 nm design. nVidia has clocked the core frequency at 1506 MHz. The GDDR5 RAM runs at a frequency of 2000 MHz on this model. It features 1152 SPUs along with 72 Texture Address Units and 48 Rasterization Operator Units.
Power Usage and Theoretical Benchmarks
Power Consumption (Max TDP)
The GeForce GTX 1060 3GB, in theory, should be much faster than the GeForce 8400 GS 512MB overall. (explain)
Texel RateThe GeForce GTX 1060 3GB will be a lot (about 1985%) better at AF than the GeForce 8400 GS 512MB. (explain)
Pixel RateIf running with a high screen resolution is important to you, then the GeForce GTX 1060 3GB is the winner, and very much so. (explain)
Please note that the above 'benchmarks' are all just theoretical - the results were calculated based on the card's specifications, and real-world performance may (and probably will) vary at least a bit.
Please note that the price comparisons are based on search keywords - sometimes it might show cards with very similar names that are not exactly the same as the one chosen in the comparison. We do try to filter out the wrong results as best we can, though.
Memory Bandwidth: Bandwidth is the max amount of information (in units of megabytes per second) that can be transported past the external memory interface in a second. It is worked out by multiplying the bus width by its memory speed. If the card has DDR RAM, the result should be multiplied by 2 once again. If it uses DDR5, multiply by 4 instead. The better the bandwidth is, the faster the card will be in general. It especially helps with AA, High Dynamic Range and higher screen resolutions.
Texel Rate: Texel rate is the maximum amount of texture map elements (texels) that are processed in one second. This number is calculated by multiplying the total texture units by the core clock speed of the chip. The higher the texel rate, the better the graphics card will be at texture filtering (anisotropic filtering - AF). It is measured in millions of texels applied in one second.
Pixel Rate: Pixel rate is the most pixels that the graphics chip could possibly record to its local memory per second - measured in millions of pixels per second. Pixel rate is calculated by multiplying the amount of Raster Operations Pipelines by the the core clock speed. ROPs (Raster Operations Pipelines - aka Render Output Units) are responsible for outputting the pixels (image) to the screen. The actual pixel output rate also depends on many other factors, most notably the memory bandwidth of the card - the lower the bandwidth is, the lower the ability to get to the maximum fill rate.