Compare any two graphics cards:
GeForce 9800 GT 512MB vs GeForce GTX 860M
IntroThe GeForce 9800 GT 512MB features a core clock frequency of 600 MHz and a GDDR3 memory frequency of 900 MHz. It also makes use of a 256-bit bus, and makes use of a 65/55 nm design. It features 112 SPUs, 56 TAUs, and 16 ROPs.
Compare those specifications to the GeForce GTX 860M, which features a GPU core clock speed of 797 MHz, and 4096 MB of GDDR5 memory set to run at 1000 MHz through a 128-bit bus. It also is made up of 1152 SPUs, 96 Texture Address Units, and 16 ROPs.
Power Usage and Theoretical Benchmarks
Power Consumption (Max TDP)
As far as performance goes, the GeForce GTX 860M should theoretically be a bit better than the GeForce 9800 GT 512MB in general. (explain)
Texel RateThe GeForce GTX 860M will be much (approximately 128%) faster with regards to anisotropic filtering than the GeForce 9800 GT 512MB. (explain)
Pixel RateThe GeForce GTX 860M is a lot (about 33%) faster with regards to anti-aliasing than the GeForce 9800 GT 512MB, and also will be capable of handling higher screen resolutions without slowing down too much. (explain)
Please note that the above 'benchmarks' are all just theoretical - the results were calculated based on the card's specifications, and real-world performance may (and probably will) vary at least a bit.
Please note that the price comparisons are based on search keywords - sometimes it might show cards with very similar names that are not exactly the same as the one chosen in the comparison. We do try to filter out the wrong results as best we can, though.
Memory Bandwidth: Bandwidth is the maximum amount of data (measured in MB per second) that can be moved over the external memory interface in a second. It is calculated by multiplying the card's bus width by its memory clock speed. If the card has DDR RAM, it should be multiplied by 2 once again. If it uses DDR5, multiply by ANOTHER 2x. The better the card's memory bandwidth, the better the card will be in general. It especially helps with anti-aliasing, HDR and higher screen resolutions.
Texel Rate: Texel rate is the maximum texture map elements (texels) that are applied in one second. This is calculated by multiplying the total texture units by the core speed of the chip. The better the texel rate, the better the video card will be at texture filtering (anisotropic filtering - AF). It is measured in millions of texels per second.
Pixel Rate: Pixel rate is the most pixels that the graphics chip can possibly record to the local memory in one second - measured in millions of pixels per second. The number is worked out by multiplying the number of Render Output Units by the the card's clock speed. ROPs (Raster Operations Pipelines - sometimes also referred to as Render Output Units) are responsible for outputting the pixels (image) to the screen. The actual pixel fill rate also depends on lots of other factors, most notably the memory bandwidth - the lower the memory bandwidth is, the lower the ability to reach the max fill rate.