Compare any two graphics cards:
Radeon HD 4850 2GB vs Radeon RX 470
IntroThe Radeon HD 4850 2GB features a core clock speed of 625 MHz and a GDDR4 memory speed of 993 MHz. It also uses a 256-bit bus, and makes use of a 55 nm design. It features 800(160x5) SPUs, 40 Texture Address Units, and 16 ROPs.
Compare that to the Radeon RX 470, which uses a 14 nm design. AMD has set the core speed at 926 MHz. The GDDR5 RAM is set to run at a speed of 1650 MHz on this model. It features 2048 SPUs along with 128 Texture Address Units and 32 ROPs.
Power Usage and Theoretical Benchmarks
Power Consumption (Max TDP)
Theoretically speaking, the Radeon RX 470 will be 232% quicker than the Radeon HD 4850 2GB overall, because of its higher bandwidth. (explain)
Texel RateThe Radeon RX 470 should be much (about 374%) better at texture filtering than the Radeon HD 4850 2GB. (explain)
Pixel RateThe Radeon RX 470 should be much (more or less 196%) faster with regards to FSAA than the Radeon HD 4850 2GB, and should be able to handle higher resolutions without slowing down too much. (explain)
Please note that the above 'benchmarks' are all just theoretical - the results were calculated based on the card's specifications, and real-world performance may (and probably will) vary at least a bit.
Memory Bandwidth: Bandwidth is the largest amount of information (counted in megabytes per second) that can be transported over the external memory interface in one second. It's worked out by multiplying the bus width by the speed of its memory. If the card has DDR type RAM, it must be multiplied by 2 again. If DDR5, multiply by ANOTHER 2x. The better the memory bandwidth, the better the card will be in general. It especially helps with AA, High Dynamic Range and high resolutions.
Texel Rate: Texel rate is the maximum amount of texture map elements (texels) that can be applied per second. This number is calculated by multiplying the total amount of texture units by the core speed of the chip. The higher this number, the better the video card will be at handling texture filtering (anisotropic filtering - AF). It is measured in millions of texels applied per second.
Pixel Rate: Pixel rate is the maximum amount of pixels that the graphics chip can possibly write to its local memory in a second - measured in millions of pixels per second. The figure is worked out by multiplying the number of colour ROPs by the the core speed of the card. ROPs (Raster Operations Pipelines - also called Render Output Units) are responsible for drawing the pixels (image) on the screen. The actual pixel fill rate is also dependant on lots of other factors, especially the memory bandwidth of the card - the lower the bandwidth is, the lower the potential to get to the maximum fill rate.