Compare any two graphics cards:
GeForce 9500 GT 1GB GDDR3 vs GeForce GTX 950M
IntroThe GeForce 9500 GT 1GB GDDR3 makes use of a 55 nm design. nVidia has set the core frequency at 550 MHz. The GDDR3 RAM is set to run at a speed of 800 MHz on this particular model. It features 32 SPUs along with 16 TAUs and 8 ROPs.
Compare that to the GeForce GTX 950M, which features core clock speeds of 914 MHz on the GPU, and 1000 MHz on the 2048 MB of DDR3 RAM. It features 640 SPUs as well as 40 Texture Address Units and 16 Rasterization Operator Units.
Power Usage and Theoretical Benchmarks
Power Consumption (Max TDP)
Theoretically, the GeForce GTX 950M should perform a lot faster than the GeForce 9500 GT 1GB GDDR3 overall. (explain)
Texel RateThe GeForce GTX 950M should be a lot (more or less 315%) better at AF than the GeForce 9500 GT 1GB GDDR3. (explain)
Pixel RateThe GeForce GTX 950M will be a lot (more or less 232%) more effective at AA than the GeForce 9500 GT 1GB GDDR3, and also should be able to handle higher resolutions without losing too much performance. (explain)
Please note that the above 'benchmarks' are all just theoretical - the results were calculated based on the card's specifications, and real-world performance may (and probably will) vary at least a bit.
Memory Bandwidth: Bandwidth is the maximum amount of information (measured in MB per second) that can be moved past the external memory interface in one second. The number is worked out by multiplying the card's interface width by its memory speed. If the card has DDR type RAM, it must be multiplied by 2 again. If DDR5, multiply by 4 instead. The higher the bandwidth is, the better the card will be in general. It especially helps with AA, HDR and high resolutions.
Texel Rate: Texel rate is the maximum texture map elements (texels) that can be processed per second. This is calculated by multiplying the total amount of texture units by the core clock speed of the chip. The higher this number, the better the video card will be at texture filtering (anisotropic filtering - AF). It is measured in millions of texels applied per second.
Pixel Rate: Pixel rate is the maximum amount of pixels that the graphics chip can possibly record to its local memory in one second - measured in millions of pixels per second. The number is calculated by multiplying the amount of colour ROPs by the the core clock speed. ROPs (Raster Operations Pipelines - aka Render Output Units) are responsible for drawing the pixels (image) on the screen. The actual pixel fill rate also depends on many other factors, most notably the memory bandwidth of the card - the lower the bandwidth is, the lower the potential to get to the maximum fill rate.