Compare any two graphics cards:
GeForce 9500 GT 1GB GDDR3 vs GeForce GTX 950M
IntroThe GeForce 9500 GT 1GB GDDR3 uses a 55 nm design. nVidia has clocked the core speed at 550 MHz. The GDDR3 RAM runs at a speed of 800 MHz on this specific model. It features 32 SPUs as well as 16 Texture Address Units and 8 ROPs.
Compare all of that to the GeForce GTX 950M, which comes with GPU clock speed of 914 MHz, and 2048 MB of DDR3 RAM running at 1000 MHz through a 128-bit bus. It also is made up of 640 Stream Processors, 40 Texture Address Units, and 16 Raster Operation Units.
Power Usage and Theoretical Benchmarks
Power Consumption (Max TDP)
Theoretically speaking, the GeForce GTX 950M is 25% faster than the GeForce 9500 GT 1GB GDDR3 in general, due to its greater bandwidth. (explain)
Texel RateThe GeForce GTX 950M should be much (more or less 315%) faster with regards to texture filtering than the GeForce 9500 GT 1GB GDDR3. (explain)
Pixel RateThe GeForce GTX 950M will be quite a bit (approximately 232%) more effective at full screen anti-aliasing than the GeForce 9500 GT 1GB GDDR3, and should be able to handle higher resolutions without losing too much performance. (explain)
Please note that the above 'benchmarks' are all just theoretical - the results were calculated based on the card's specifications, and real-world performance may (and probably will) vary at least a bit.
Memory Bandwidth: Memory bandwidth is the maximum amount of information (counted in megabytes per second) that can be moved over the external memory interface in one second. The number is calculated by multiplying the interface width by its memory clock speed. In the case of DDR type memory, it should be multiplied by 2 again. If it uses DDR5, multiply by ANOTHER 2x. The higher the memory bandwidth, the better the card will be in general. It especially helps with anti-aliasing, HDR and higher screen resolutions.
Texel Rate: Texel rate is the maximum amount of texture map elements (texels) that are processed per second. This figure is worked out by multiplying the total texture units by the core clock speed of the chip. The better this number, the better the video card will be at handling texture filtering (anisotropic filtering - AF). It is measured in millions of texels applied per second.
Pixel Rate: Pixel rate is the maximum number of pixels the video card can possibly write to the local memory per second - measured in millions of pixels per second. The number is worked out by multiplying the amount of colour ROPs by the clock speed of the card. ROPs (Raster Operations Pipelines - also sometimes called Render Output Units) are responsible for outputting the pixels (image) to the screen. The actual pixel output rate is also dependant on lots of other factors, especially the memory bandwidth of the card - the lower the bandwidth is, the lower the ability to reach the maximum fill rate.